An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. Devices like PCs, laptops, and smartphones can utilise IP addresses to identify each other and transmit data over the web.

The concept of IP addresses was introduced by the Internet Society, which oversees its development and standardisation. Since its introduction, the IP address has seen various iterations.

Two versions of IP addresses are in use today: IPv4 and IPv6. The former is more common but is limited by its 32-bit structure, while the latter offers significantly more available addresses thanks to its 128-bit format. Both are essential components for enabling seamless online communication between devices worldwide.

  • IPv4: Consists of four sets of numbers separated by periods (e.g., Each set ranges from 0-255, allowing for approximately 4 billion unique combinations.
  • IPv6: Utilises eight groups of hexadecimal digits separated by colons (e.g., fe80::200:f8ff:fe21:67cf). This expanded format provides trillions upon trillions of potential addresses.

In addition to these primary classifications, there are different types based on their usage or allocation method — such as public vs. private IPs or static vs. dynamic IPs — which we will discuss further in later sections.

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How IP Addresses Work

An IP address is a unique identifier for devices connected to the Internet or a local network. These addresses are crucial for enabling communication between different devices, as they help route data packets from one device to another. The Internet Protocol (IP) governs how these addresses are assigned and used.

An IP address has two main components: the network ID and the host ID. The network ID identifies the specific network that a device belongs to, while the host ID identifies individual devices within that network. Every device must have a unique combination of these IDs to ensure efficient data packet routing.

  • Binary Representation: IP addresses are binary numbers represented in decimal form for easier readability by humans. Decimal numbers between 0 and 255, separated by periods (e.g.,, uniquely identify each device for accurate data packet routing.
  • Dotted Decimal Notation: This format consists of four sets of decimal numbers separated by periods, known as octets (e.g., 172.XX.YY.ZZ). Each octet represents eight bits or one byte in binary notation.
  • Data Packet Routing: When you send information over the Internet or your local area network (LAN) before it is transmitted, it’s broken down into smaller units called data packets. Networks use routers and switches to send data packets by relying on IP addresses for proper delivery.

To maintain effective communication between devices, there’s also an important distinction between public and private IPs. Public IPs are assigned by your internet provider and allow access from anywhere on the Internet. Private IPs, on the other hand, are assigned by your network router and are restricted to their respective networks. Comprehending IP address utilisation is essential for both tech experts and standard users since it has a crucial role in the Internet’s overall performance.

IPv4 vs. IPv6

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the foundation of communication across networks, which has evolved over time to accommodate the growing number of devices connected to the Internet. The two most common versions in use today are IPv4 and IPv6.

IPv4, or Internet Protocol version 4, was developed in the early 1980s and remains widely used despite its limitations. It uses a 32-bit address system, allowing for approximately 4.3 billion unique addresses. As more devices connect to the Internet, this limited pool of available addresses is insufficient.

  • IPv4 Advantages: Widely supported by existing infrastructure and devices.
  • IPv4 Disadvantages: Limited number of available IP addresses; increased risk of IP conflicts due to reuse.

In response to these challenges, IPv6, or Internet Protocol version 6, was introduced as an upgrade that provides a vastly expanded address space using a longer 128-bit addressing system. This new format can support up to roughly 340 undecillion unique IP addresses – an almost inconceivable amount designed with future growth in mind.

  • IPv6 Advantages: Virtually unlimited supply of IP addresses; improved security features; better efficiency for routing data packets.
  • IPv6 Disadvantages: Slower adoption rate due to required updates on hardware/software compatibility.

Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6 is a complex but essential process for continued Internet growth and security. IT and cybersecurity teams should be aware of these differences and work towards adopting IPv6 to ensure their networks are future-proofed against potential address shortages.

Types of IP Addresses

There are two primary types of IP addresses, each with its own unique characteristics and use cases. Understanding the differences between these address types can help you better manage your network security and connectivity.

Public IP Addresses

An Internet Service Provider (ISP) assigns a public IP address to a device connected to the Internet. These addresses are globally unique, meaning no two devices share the same public IP address. Public IPs enable connected devices to interact with one another from any location across the globe.

Private IP Addresses

Conversely, private IPs are only used within closed networks like businesses and institutions and cannot be reached by outside parties. Private IP addresses enable communication between devices inside the network according to Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) ranges. Therefore, they can’t be accessed from outside the network. Private IPs follow specific ranges reserved for this purpose as set by IANA.

  • IPv4: 10.x.x.x, 172.16.x.x - 172.31.x.x, and 192.168.x.x
  • IPv6: fd00::/8

Static vs. Dynamic IPs

Another distinction among IPs is whether they’re static or dynamic:

  • Static IP addresses, once assigned to a device, remain unchanged over time unless manually altered by an administrator.
  • Dynamic IP addresses change periodically, as assigned by a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server.

Static IPs are often used for servers and devices that require consistent access points, while dynamic IPs are more common for residential users or devices with less critical network functions.

How to Find Your IP Address

Finding your IP address is straightforward and can be accomplished using multiple approaches. Knowing the distinction between public and private IP addresses is essential to accurately identify both.

Identifying a Public IP Address

Your public IP address can easily be found by conducting an online search. Simply type “what is my ip” into any search engine, and the results will display your current public IP address.

Alternatively, you can use dedicated online tools like, which provides information about your public IP along with additional details like geolocation data.

Identifying a Private IP Address

To locate your private IP address on a Windows computer, open the Command Prompt by pressing the Windows key + R, typing “cmd”, and hitting Enter. From the Command Prompt window, enter “ipconfig” and hit Enter. The resulting list of network connections will include your private IPv4 and IPv6 addresses under their respective headings.

If you’re using macOS or Linux operating systems, open Terminal (macOS) or Shell (Linux), then enter “ifconfig” for macOS users or “ip addr show” for Linux users, followed by Enter. This command displays network connection information similar to Windows but may require scrolling through more text to locate your private IPs.

You can also find your private IPs via online tools like, which works across multiple platforms, including mobile devices.

Security Concerns with an IP Address

An IP address, whether public or private, can be a potential target for malicious actors. Cybercriminals that gain access to your IP address can perform malicious activities that could risk your online security and privacy. Some of the common threats associated with exposed IP addresses include:

  • Location tracking: Cybercriminals can use tools like IP geolocation services to determine your approximate location based on your public IP address.
  • Online activity monitoring: With access to your IP address, bad actors could potentially monitor and analyse the websites you visit and other online activities.
  • Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks: An attacker might launch a DDoS attack against you by flooding your network connection with excessive traffic using botnets that target your specific public or private IPs.
  • Data breaches and identity theft: If a hacker gains unauthorised access to systems connected via an exposed internal/private IP address within a corporate network, they may steal sensitive data such as personal information leading to identity theft.
  • Ideal targets for phishing scams: Cybercriminals who have obtained someone’s IP address are more likely to go after them through targeted email campaigns that appear legitimate but contain malware links. When clicked on, these links infect their computer system without warning signs.

Individuals and businesses alike must mitigate these risks by taking proactive measures to protect their digital assets from potential harm caused by exposure of their respective IP addresses, both publicly accessible ones and those assigned within local area networks.

How Can Someone Obtain Your IP Address?

Your IP address is like a digital fingerprint identifying your device and online location. It’s essential for connecting to the web but poses security risks if it falls into the wrong hands.

Social Engineering

One way an attacker could obtain your IP address is through social engineering tactics such as phishing emails or phone calls. They may pretend to be from a legitimate organisation and ask you to click on a link or download an attachment that contains malware designed to collect information about your device.


An attacker with advanced hacking skills could use various techniques such as port scanning, packet sniffing, or exploiting vulnerabilities in software programmes running on your computer to gain access to your network and steal sensitive data, including IPs.

Websites and Apps

When you visit websites or use apps online, they can log information about you, including cookies stored in browsers that often contain user IDs (unique numbers assigned by sites) and other tracking methods advertisers use, like pixels that track user movements across different pages. All this data collected over time can help a malicious actor identify users’ devices without knowing their IPs.

Protecting Your IP Address

To protect your public and private IP addresses from access by malicious actors, implement the following measures to help safeguard your online privacy and security.

  • Use a Virtual Private Network (VPN): A VPN encrypts your Internet connection and hides your actual IP address, making it difficult for cybercriminals to track or intercept your data.
  • Secure Wi-Fi networks: When possible, connect to secure Wi-Fi networks requiring passwords. Avoid using public Wi-Fi hotspots, as they can expose your device’s IP address to potential attackers.
  • Avoid clicking on suspicious links or downloading unknown files/programmes: Malicious software may contain code designed to reveal or exploit system vulnerabilities, including exposing your IP address information.
  • Maintain up-to-date software with regularly installed security patches: Keep all operating systems, applications, and antivirus programmes updated with the latest security patches. This helps prevent hackers from exploiting known vulnerabilities that could lead them to discover sensitive information, such as an individual’s IP address.

In addition to these proactive measures, consider utilising tools like firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS) for added protection against unauthorised access attempts targeting both personal devices and corporate networks alike.

By taking the necessary precautions and implementing advanced cybersecurity solutions, businesses can defend their digital assets while maintaining optimal operational efficiency moving forward in today’s ever-evolving threat landscape.

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