Video Malvertising Bringing New Risks to High-Profile Sites

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[Editor’s Note - This post has been updated to reflect new activity and additional information identified by Proofpoint researchers between March 19th and 21st.]

Exploit kits are powerful tools for cybercriminals, downloading malware onto vulnerable PCs whenever users surf to a compromised or malicious site. Usually this happens transparently without the user even knowing they’ve been infected.  Proofpoint researchers have been tracking the first known instance of video malvertising leading to an exploit kit. The campaign, which involved both banner and video ads, hit high-profile sites including,, and, among many others, as well as large ad networks, potentially putting millions of users at risk of infection.

On March 13, 2016, Proofpoint researchers observed a large malvertising campaign hitting many highly-ranked websites including and many others. We also surmised (and later confirmed) that there was a video malvertising involved in this campaign.

While such campaigns aren't new, this appears to be the first documented instance of such a campaign leading to an exploit kit. The threat of exploit kits in video malvertising creates another layer of potential problems for consumers and advertisers alike.

Parts of this activity have already been documented by our colleagues at Trend Micro [6]. We have uncovered new details about the infection chain and can provide key historical context on the attacker behind it.

This campaign is notable for several reasons:

  • A large number of highly ranked sites were involved in malvertising
  • It marks the first documented instance of video malvertising leading to an exploit kit
  • The final payloads were an Evotob Trojan and a Reactorbot banking Trojan

Static malvertising component

The full list of websites that we observed unwittingly participating in this malvertising campaign—displaying the malicious advertisements and driving traffic to the exploit kit— appears below. Some other websites were also involved as referrers via YahooAds, Aol, and


After investigating alerts related to this event on March 13, we determined that all of these redirects lead to an Angler instance that was infecting victims with Bedep (build-id 1940). Bedep's secondary payloads were both the Evotob dropper Trojan and an instance of the Reactorbot banking Trojan.

Angler EK loading Bedep 1940 in memory and pushing Evotob and Reactorbot

Figure 1: Angler EK (from start[.]lenovo[.]com) on March 13, 2016 loading Bedep 1940 in memory and then pushing Evotob and Reactorbot.

Notably, the same malware (sharing the same command-and-control (C&C) infrastructure) was dropped by Bedep 1967 from the Angler instance fed by another malvertising campaign being run by an actor we are tracking as GooNky [7] [8] (the name is a contraction the attacker’s past https redirectors, and

Figure 2: Another group (GooNky - using Domain Shadowing [7] and a Let’sEncrypt certificate [8]) sending traffic to a different instance of Bedep dropping the same malware tuple. This group is not tied to the spike from March 13. Even so, the common dropped malware illustrates how in some cases, groups in charge of the traffic are providers to what appear to be load sellers.

As seen in Figure 1, the large-scale malvertising attack that took place on March 13, was not dropping ransomware as originally reported.

The confusion resulted from mixing up two campaigns [17] [18]. The campaign covered by Spiderlabs [13] is not tied to this spike. Instead, we connected the ransomware campaign to the "VirtualDonna" group [11].

Despite receiving a large amount of traffic since at least February 23 (when we saw it and flagged the new redirector pattern), the traffic volume driven by this actor did not change on March 13. We are also seeing VirtualDonna spreading Teslacrypt (id52) directly from Angler.

Figure 3: VirtualDonna chain to Angler EK dropping Teslacrypt ID52 (1e18d9c07d7c86c102003a2f4310f1eb) on the 2016-03-06

or via Bedep (600x) :

Figure 4: "VirtualDonna" redirecting to Angler loading Bedep 6006 (not illustrated here: the first stream contains Teslacrypt ID=52 among other things) on March 12, 2016.

A list of associated redirector patterns (as of March 8) is available here.

Video malvertising component

A separate video malvertising campaign on March 13 raised an alarm. As we can see in Trend Micro’s post [6], the pattern, registrant information, and methods are to be connected with a group dubbed “SadClowns" by our friends at RiskIQ.

Before we dive into this event, however, a little history is in order. We’ll start by illustrating some of their past activities:

Figure 5: XHamster hit by a malvertising campaign operated by “SadClowns” on September 25, 2015, abusing TrafficHaus.


Figure 6: "SadClowns" redirecting to Nuclear Pack spreading Evotob - 2015-10-03.

Figure 7: EngageBDR abused and “typo-mimicked” by “SadClowns” on 2015-11-29 (Not illustrated: Bedep 1922 then Vawtrak).

The same day:

Figure 8: EngageBDR abused and “typo-mimicked” by “SadClowns” on 2015-11-29 redirecting to Neutrino pushing Evotob.

On the March 16, we captured a video malvertising campaign embedding a “SadClowns” redirector and driving victims to an instance of Angler EK. As we noted, video malvertising is not new [14]. But we believe this is the first documented case in which a campaign redirects to an exploit kit.

Figure 9: Full chain caught on 2016-03-16 for a Video malvertising (using VAST) operated by “SadClowns”. Click for full size image.

Another chain unrelated to SpotXchange might have been in use on March 13. But based on information received from a large ad agency higher in the kill chain, we know that SpotXchange was involved.

We have contacted SpotX (formerly known as SpotXchange) about this issue.


Malvertising and ad fraud in general have become pervasive problems in the industry. This campaign stands out because of its scale, the rank and status of involved sites, and the presence of video malvertising redirecting to an exploit kit.

We will continue to monitor the different actors and threats covered here and will share notable new developments. The use of exploit kits with video malvertising is just the latest feature in a constantly evolving threat landscape.

Users and organizations should ensure that browsers are fully up to date, along with any browser plugins like Flash and Java. Wherever possible, plugins should be disabled as these are common sources of vulnerabilities that exploit kits use to infect PCs.

UPDATE 3/22/16

This SadClowns video malvertising restarted early morning on Saturday March 19th, with activity on some of the same large, high-profile referrers. For example, we were able to isolate the activity on:


Based on the patterns and infrastructure involved, it appears that the same actors were involved. We see two payloads in the first chain:

00b7496a1c56645290a482fe5f15489e - 327168  - Evotob 
e2bbc57872824e69f987fb4d1b328dca – 221184 

As shown below, we were also able to observe the complete chain, with Google Ads used in the delivery. We contacted CloudFlare, DoubleClick, and SpotX and noticed that the activity ended much sooner than during the first malvertising campaign, suggesting that referrers or parties involved in the malvertising chain were able to block the activity once they were alerted.


ID Link Date             Subject
1 2013-10-07 SadClowns
2015-09-25 SadClowns
3 2015-10-21 SadClowns
4 2016-01-19 SadClowns
5 2016-02-06 SadClowns
6 2016-03-14 SadClowns
7 2015-12-15 GooNky
8 2016-01-07 GooNky
9 2015-09-24 VirtualDonna
10 2015-09-30 VirtualDonna
11 2015-10-15 VirtualDonna
12 2015-12-07 VirtualDonna
13 2016-03-14 VirtualDonna
14 2015-11-03 TMT on a Vast Malvertising
15 2016-03-16 GooNky
16   VAST
17 2016-03-16  
18 2016-03-15  

Sites in which we have detected malvertising activity (redirectors, referrers, etc.) related to these campaigns

Approx. Date Domain Comment
2016-03-11 talk915[.]pw SadClowns Redir 2
2016-03-15 www[.]adsmedia[.]work SadClowns Redir 1
2016-03-10 meten[.]pw SadClowns Redir 2
2016-02-21 pumori-invest[.]top SadClowns Redir 2
2016-02-23 arena-club[.]top SadClowns Redir 2
2016-02-23 finn-power[.]top SadClowns Redir 2
2016-02-28 dulevointernational[.]top SadClowns Redir 2
2016-02-28 faresinhandlers[.]top SadClowns Redir 2
2016-03-13 www[.]trackmytraffic[.]biz SadClowns Redir 1
2016-02-28 www[.]lovehouse[.]work SadClowns Redir 1
2016-02-28 lumienglish[.]pw SadClowns Redir 2
2016-02-28 kukuspeak[.]pw SadClowns Redir 2
2016-03-15 gymglish[.]pw SadClowns Redir 2
2016-03-15 autronicafire[.]click SadClowns Redir 2
2016-03-15 abc360[.]pw SadClowns Redir 2
2016-03-15 vipkid[.]pw SadClowns Redir 2
2016-03-12 cloud77[.]eu Reactorbot C&C
2016-03-12 tds[.]repack[.]it Andromeda C&C
2016-03-12 oldbog[.]cc Evotob C&C

Select ET signatures (Angler/Bedep not included):

2022565  || ET CURRENT_EVENTS Evil Redirect Leading to EK Feb 23 2016

2022621 || ET CURRENT_EVENTS Evil Redirector Leading to EK Mar 15 2016 M2

2815324 || ETPRO TROJAN Andromeda CnC Beacon Fake UA 1

2816403 || ETPRO TROJAN Win32/Evotob.B Variant Checkin Response

2816301 || ETPRO TROJAN Win32/Evotob.B CnC

Samples dropped by Bedep 1940:

Date             md5 sha-256  
-- -- 924e02fc6a92317d223fd7d91ec9194df3b2687f1cb26065a86dac34d2e0f5f8 Zip with all samples
2016-03-12 7a0db508356e157f2247bc2f17a113bb 54247bc1a38136bf0a6690effb3bf400fd525de3ddcf2bd023a9eae2e97fe63b Evotob via Bedep 1967
2016-03-12 52f94100ca96026df037a8e280815c7d c0371c3d84fe3383b0d8989e253ce698055fb65f85a469148ac363fab7a133d5 Reactorbot via Bedep 1967
2016-03-13 0efc7662d6bafe8de8c210722c4f2b2f e7319589f77e2c8346fb38f8a83b76c69b83d31c236edaae7a73f8198445ee15 Evotob
2016-03-13 4a57023e70a8a2fe58e8c8a6393f11ae  359995edea1f874fffaa1ea980d66a14d9af04c0c1ff320024abcd95f243ab6f Reactorbot
2016-03-14 5896680d2876e129d0187f90af9554d8 bf07887d8a4b5882aab8c526723ec91c4815a4e68dd183c5513fd837e3b2038c Reactorbot
2016-03-14 a2f763dba399e96e67c03872aab133d7 0b8706d630853b15eba542e19c2e9c8fc9372838041201de5a8677e950eab994  
2016-03-14 64496ed71600551da31c4f705666641a 209509074d982f8f5eab65bd957c4907e3fbd10a327f6383a47c9c738df57835 Evotob
2016-03-15 c76ce2fc023870b05440dac57e158c0d 6360ce818badad859ad1804b01ca27bfa75430c2dd787b3f1fc118e90528cc03 Evotob
2016-03-15 262b7ca79312260e2bf0665be08a7e26 1c5ab61bcdc2f940a46916d9a7cc2b2a4799b6eb7fed58ce4de3d5ceb34f3e9b Evotob
2016-03-15 2928462ba83f5db4b5c960b189f53e8a 9eb9db3606ce1ef7a8c07f7cbc601d02807fe405f540618e1a675ddc4ba41b02  
2016-03-15 89908643030ab78fa3ceaefad9d781f6 f9e3aebbe7d19ef46db41334713c5c9191c2cec9d36eff450ed0576bbeadb9c2  
2016-03-15 4927f9f83a6201bcfc8511bb5c53d541 88beaf554cbdd0a313ad8404f4d78db38d13ef6edb5d0bbf46ae9caebec93710 Andromeda
2016-03-15 d1f38bc66d01347eca1561976184c7ce 0bfbc5db178bfe9f373e7d7b9f1a10b802f574a5802bf046e1f07cdaf06d70bd  
2016-03-15 1f69e1fc635255812df145fb783ddcd3 bcdc220dc9c1ef5157db9a3456007232eb1de381a230fa16790bbfb41161294d Andromeda
2016-03-15 e3a6db108c0d821730c6d8d4eddc74e3 95aba1bebdc7f15369c4f8cf3bd05f28f4dc5a2d660d551e93af9271ab718a87  
2016-03-15 c7d10aeab1755369f92efe175ce3ecf1 21b99210d2941ae3afaa4d033b4925caf59ec864c10b03120e8080c5b50f3973  
2016-03-15 c623857b2e4f9ad00f64d80dccb38458 495f4fa5df59e15e5f8fb4304f31e453c46e468b94713918755181c6df577567 Reactorbot
2016-03-16 7679bf26cf87bf8ef63f0e2ebab51ce9 a20055b2633fedcbf26f5eb701700cfbac9153089dc8dd613efc12d0aa24c94f Evotob
2016-03-16 5442e59ae935ac2e9fa3318ff15121fd 3c49b6fdf383e9b082ae8274da20ec6d86ab2d3984987d6487f610ac83f9ee50 Reactorbot
2016-03-16 181dc784a3558882fcc8146305966de1 44f714a540406d49d719177a8b34fe9fb12f0c0abf2e2e6172c29d36e8471cf1 Evotob
2016-03-16 1311e52851256b1c7693a9c3ba362133 a6ca142dfaea4ecc5fb9a143ffe2d7f2428d0347edd04e0ac86b382fd0aad18b Reactorbot
2016-03-16 cd44702491d9b1fc8c76eaba7e25fed1 0083cd2f981c2eea789df19aabf851518200f6cd0a9290a2d7f33c642f2ccb03  
2016-03-16 b54616c65d16f692449d58703c440b6d 7406c4ea8f33ce262d3fd74e8660406e84b3e450a6f93b21855a3f9bf585d51d Evotob
2016-03-17 6492739f8aa04220e72316ec824499a8 ddd8456edc4bd42270cfaf4016a5e6a2a9d001e800aae405538d0e15f13a01a2  
2016-03-17 6afc196267063516f826c4d49be93676 f25b683bac36c496507e50a5f679435eff89d5e72a49555419e0fed70d53a2f9 Evotob
2016-03-17 2813afce0783870309d55360c2c846bd 9d6dac22a96955dece38e3c9094d0e6d2797f3679da84f2c48eae13b8a9b8ea0 Reactorbot